Bland–Altman plot displaying the agreement between each lactate threshold marker and critical power [Dmaxexp (A), Dmaxpol (B), OBLA (C), and LTΔ1 (D)]. Solid and dashed horizontal lines represent the bias and the limits of agreement (bias ± 1.96 SD), respectively. A schematic representation of the experimental design of this study is shown in Figure 1. Subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 17 occasions over a 3-weeks period.
We have previously used this methodology to understand immunological changes in healthy individuals in the two different exercise regimens14. We collected blood samples prior to exercise testing with three blood samples collected at different time points after exercise. While both maximal and endurance exercise regimens led to a rapid accumulation of several leukocyte populations, the maximal regimen lead to a greater increase of most leukocyte subpopulations immediately after the testing was performed. We also found that CD56+CD16+ natural killer cells increased the most immediately after exercise, but CD15+ granulocytes had a delayed response by peaking at three hours post exercise. As it is well known that peripheral blood leukocytes rapidly accumulate into circulation following exercise (reviewed by Freidenreich and Volek22), our study demonstrated that the kinetics of mobilization are quite different and cell type specific.
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The PPO was determined as the highest, fully completed stage during the incremental maximal test. If the last stage was not fully completed, PPO was calculated according to the formula proposed elsewhere (De Pauw et al., 2013). Several studies have reported that short- and long-term IPC interventions (e.g., 1–8 weeks) of IPC increases endothelial function (Kimura et al., 2007; Nakamura et al., 2009; Jones et al., 2014, 2015). Of those, Jones et al. (2015) reported that endothelial function further increased a week after a 1-week intervention (i.e., seven consecutive days) compared to 24 h after the completion of this intervention. This phenomenon may be due to the late effect of IPC (Manchurov et al., 2014; Hildebrandt et al., 2016). Lindsay et al. (2017) reported that VO2 peak further increased a week after a 1-week IPC intervention compared to 48 h after the completion of this intervention.
When evaluating if there is a pulmonary limitation, it is helpful to know resting pulmonary function which can identify obstructive or restrictive limitations through the slow vital capacity (SVC) and forced vital capacity (FVC) maneuvers. Performing the maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) maneuver to determine ventilatory capacity is useful as this can then be utilized to determine how much ventilatory reserve is present or if the individual is encroaching upon their ventilatory limits. Before performing pulmonary function testing, one should review the standardized methods for spirometry provided by the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society16,17. Relationship between each lactate threshold marker [Dmaxexp (A), Dmaxpol (B), OBLA (C), and LTΔ1 (D)] and critical power. This study intended to assess the test–retest reliability of an incremental test performed on a slide board (SB), and its validity compared with a cycling protocol in order to determine aerobic performance indices in speed skaters.
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On the first experimental day, physical characteristics and quadriceps femoris cross-sectional area (CSA) of the subjects was measured. Forty-eight hours after the day, in the second experimental day, the subjects performed a repeated moderate-intensity cycling test. Thirty minutes after this test was completed, the knee extensor MVC of the subjects was measured. Participants visited the laboratory on two different occasions interspersed by a minimum of 48 h, completing all procedures in a maximum of 1 week. All tests were performed on the same validated indoor cycle trainer (CycleOps, Madison, WI; Lillo-Bevia and Pallarés, 2018), allowing participants to use their own bicycle.
When designing a study with exercise testing, it is important to establish what the goals of the use of exercise are and what type of response is desired. Table 1 highlights the differences and similarities between submaximal endurance and maximal exercise testing, but researchers also need to be cognizant of the effects different modalities of exercise will have on the parameters being evaluated. In contrast, during a submaximal endurance exercise test the demand is increased from that at rest, but is raised to fixed exercise intensity. As such, the cardiopulmonary response has an initial increase, but then plateaus as the body adapts to meet the consistent demand (Figure 1B).
Comparison of VO2max and metabolic variables between treadmill running and treadmill skating
The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. The authors would like to thank prof. Wojciech Zatoń for translation and the subjects participating in the study and their coaches. Deliver unparalleled digital experience with our Next-Gen, AI-powered testing cloud platform. Whenever you carry out a big project with plenty of sub-projects, this method is beneficial. They are also called “calling programs.” Drivers can simulate the interface between different top-level modules which might not be available or are still under development.
The highest peak torque of the two trials or more than two trials was assessed as the knee extensor MVC. In the reproducibility of the knee extensor MVC, we calculated the ICC on two separate days in 14 healthy young males, as obtained in our previous study (Tanaka et al., 2020). The ICC of the knee extensor MVC on the 2 days showed an excellent value of 0.974. Despite the interesting findings, some limitations of the study should be mentioned. Further research into MFO, FATmax and FATmin should comprise a dietary analysis and pre-measurement standardization of diet composition.
Variations in workload, inclination, duration, type of exercise, and the timing of sample collection can all influence measurements of physiological responses. Here, we outline methods for maximal and submaximal endurance exercises to gather physiological data while collecting samples for biological responses. The following protocol can be used as a standardized method for two distinct exercise regimens for measuring physiological and biological responses to exercise. incremental testing approach Lindsay et al. (2017) reported that a 1-week IPC intervention increased whole-body exercise performances, including VO2 peak during a ramp-incremental cycling test. Jeffries et al. (2019) also reported positive effect of a 1-week IPC intervention on endurance time, but not VO2 peak, during a ramp-incremental cycling test. Additionally, another study by Jeffries et al. (2018) reported that a 1-week IPC intervention increased oxidative capacity in the skeletal muscle.
- Regular physical activity has a positive effect on human health, but the mechanisms controlling these effects remain unclear.
- When we perform incremental testing, we verify the system’s elements separately.
- A difference in maximum work rate with modification of incremental exercise test design may change the validity of using these results for predicting performance, and prescribing or monitoring training.
- Furthermore, the intervention did not change the knee extensor MVC and quadriceps femoris CSA.
- Overall, this approach can be easily adapted into both short- and long-term effects of two distinct exercise regimens.
We have outlined standardized exercise protocols, but additional steps can be taken preceding the exercise testing to further improve the consistency and reproducibility of exercise testing results. For example, have the same technician perform all of the blood pressure measurements for a particular study, or at minimum, have the same technician measure a subject over multiple repeat tests. Second, a proper calibration of all test equipment, especially the metabolic analyzer, should be performed prior to each experiment. Finally, the variability of the subject population and how this will alter the individual response and comparisons between individuals should be considered and minimized.